عنوان مقاله [English]
In this research, stability of penstock tunnels bifurcation with headrace tunnel of Rudbare-Lorestan dam powerhouse was studied. Due to the weak rock masses at the bifurcation area, the numerical modeling using FLAC3D was performed. According to the results of numerical modeling and determination of plastic zone and the empirical methods, the temporary support system consists of shotcrete and rock bolt with adequate length are suggested. Based on laboratory and in situ tests, the geomechanical parameters are determined.
Today, large underground structures are constructed in order to transfer the water, oil and gas storage, underground power plants, radioactive waste repositories and etc. With the development and upgrade of infrastructures, tunnel construction is increasing all over the world and tunnel engineers are more aware of the importance of the safety and economics of tunnel construction. Stability of underground structures depend on size and geometry of construction, excavation technique, in situ stress conditions and support system and its installation time.
Methodology and Approaches
In order to estimate the deformation modulus of the rack mass in the headrace tunnel, in situ tests including of plate loading and dilatometer tests were performed. Then elasto-plastic behavior was defined for the rock mass by mohr-columb criterion and model was executed numerically to reach static stability. The Bifurcation cavern have been excavated by heading and benching method that is executed through drill and blasting technique.
Results and Conclusions
The empirical method suggest shotcrete with rock bolts to support weak rock masses. Also the numerical analysis demonstrate the installation of rock bolts with shotcrete as a temporary support system. Due to the large plastic zone caused by excavation processes, the value of the advancing step 0.8 m was determined. Also, the analysis of rock mass plastic zone in bifurcation area determined a suitable length of 6 meters for rock bolts. During the excavating of rock pillars, the value of change in the axial force acting on the rock bolt in the right wall of the tunnel No. 1, was increased. Also, the excavation of tunnel No. 2 at a distance of 11 meters from the tunnels No. 1, No. 4 and No. 5, was shown the less influence on the value of axial forces applied to the rock bolts. After the 16 stages of excavation advancement steps and installation of support systems, the maximum values of displacement in the roof, floor and walls of the bifurcation, were respectively 2.8, 3.67 and 1.5 cm