تعیین قابلیت خردایش ناشی از انفجار بر اساس نسبت سرعت موج طولی و بعد فرکتال بلوک‌های انفجاری

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشکده فنی مهندسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشکده مهندسی معدن و متالورژی، دانشگاه یزد

4 پژوهشکده فناوری‌های معدنکاری، دانشگاه یزد

5 گروه مهندسی نفت و معدن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران جنوب

10.29252/anm.2020.11479.1376

چکیده

انفجار یکی از مهم‌ترین عملیات در معادن و فعالیت‌های عمرانی است و قابلیت انفجار نیز از مهم‌ترین پارامترهای توده‌سنگ محسوب می‌شود. نتایج انفجار را می‌توان به پدیده‌های مطلوب و نامطلوب تقسیم‌بندی نمود. خردایش سنگ یکی از نتایج مطلوب انفجار است که بر فرآیندهای بعدی (بارگیری و حمل) و صنایع پایین دست تاثیرگذار است. در زمینه تعیین شاخص خردایش ناشی از انفجار تحقیقات گسترده‌ای صورت گرفته است. عوامل موثر بر انفجار را می‌توان به دو دسته عوامل قابل کنترل و غیر قابل کنترل تقسیم‌بندی نمود. شکل و ابعاد بلوک‌های برجا در جبهه‌کارهای انفجاری از جمله عوامل غیر قابل کنترل است که در پژوهش‌های انجام شده، مورد توجه قرار نگرفته است. در این مقاله از داده‌های انفجاری و ویژگی‌های توده‌سنگ معادن چغارت، چادرملو و سه‌چاهون استفاده شده است. بعد فرکتال جهت کمی‌سازی اندازه ذرات به روش شمارش جعبه مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. جهت بررسی ارتباط بین شاخص خردایش (D80) به عنوان پارامتر وابسته و پارامترهای مستقل خرج ویژه، مقاومت فشاری تک محوری، نسبت سرعت موج طولی و نسبت شکل بلوک‌ها، از مدل‌های رگرسیون خطی، رگرسیون غیرخطی و شبکه عصبی استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون خطی نشان‌دهنده آن است که شاخص خردایش با نسبت شکل بلوک‎ها دارای ارتباط معنادار است. ضریب تعیین بین شاخص خردایش و پارامترهای مستقل در رگرسیون خطی، غیرخطی و شبکه عصبی به ترتیب برابر 52/0، 70/0 و 96/0 به دست آمده است؛ همچنین ضریب VAF مدل‌های رگرسیون خطی، غیرخطی و شبکه عصبی به ترتیب برابر 18/3، 33/70 و 28/95 است که نشان‌دهنده توانایی شبکه عصبی جهت پیش‌بینی خردایش ناشی از انفجار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Rock Fragmentation Based on Longitude Wave Velocity and Fractal Dimension

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Baghestani 1
  • Masoud Monjezi 2
  • Alireza Yarahmadi Bafghi 3 4
  • Peyman Afzal 5
1 Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy, Yazd University
4 Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy, Yazd University
5 Department of Mining Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Ira
چکیده [English]

In this paper, to predict the size distribution of rock fragmentation (D80), the blasting data and rock mass characteristics of Chogart, Chadormalu and Sechahum mines were used. Rock fragmentation is affected by various parameters such as rock mass properties, in-situ blocks shape, blasting geometry. To quantity the shape of in-situ blocks, the fractal geometry is suitable method. To predict the rock fragmentation (D80) based on independent variables (rock mass characteristics, in-situ block shape, and blasting geometry); linear/nonlinear regression and neural network were used. The results shown that the nonlinear regression and neural network were ability to predict the size distribution of rock fragmentation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rock Fragmentation
  • Fractal Dimension
  • Wave Velocity
  • regression
  • Neural network

عملیات حفاری و انفجار از لحاظ فنی و اقتصادی، در استخراج معادن و کارهای عمرانی به ‌عنوان یک جزء اصلی از چرخه عملیاتی مطرح است[1-3]. نتایج انفجار را می‌توان به دو دسته نتایج مطلوب (خردایش سنگ، جابجایی توده خردشده) و نتایج نامطلوب (لرزش زمین، پرتاب سنگ، لرزش هوا و عقب‌زدگی) تقسیم‌بندی نمود[4-8]. خردایش ناشی از انفجار بر صنایع پایین دست معدنی (خردایش، پرعیارسازی) تاثیرگذار است[9،10]. عوامل موثر بر خردایش ناشی از انفجار را می‌توان به عوامل قابل کنترل (سیستم آتشکاری، طراحی الگوها، مواد منفجره مصرفی) و عوامل غیر قابل کنترل (پارامترهای توده‌سنگ) تقسیم‌بندی نمود[11-15] (شکل 1).

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